ページ更新: 2005-09-18 (日) (4780日前)

(2005-08-06 作成, 未完……記憶が薄れたので)

discypus.jpサーバをDebian GNU/Linux 3.0(Woody) から3.1(Sarge)にアップグレードする作業のメモ。

目次

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準備 #

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機材、ソフトウェア #

  • バックアップツール (Acronis True Image 8.0, Partition Image:Knnopix 4.0) 失敗したときに元に戻すため
  • Knoppix 4.0 DVD : cp -a や qtparted、cfdiskを使うため(起動に時間がかかるが)
  • BG-Rescue LinuxのCD : lilo を実行するため。(Knoppixだと起動に時間がかかるので)
  • USBメモリ(256MB) : 作業を記録して持ち帰るため
  • 念のためSargeのDVD : NICがうまく動かなかったときのため
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主なソフトウェアのバージョン #

あらかじめバージョンを調べておき、トラブルがあったときに対処する。

Woody
kernel 2.4.22-2-686
apache 1.3.26-0woody6
php4 4.1.2-7.woody4
postfix 1.1.11-0.woody3
Sarge
kernel 2.4.27-2-686
apache 1.3.33-6
php4 4.3.10-15
postfix 2.1.5-9
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バックアップ #

バックアップ手順

  • True Imageでディスクを丸ごと、手持ちの40GB HDDにバックアップする。
  • 失敗したら、Partition Image、あるいは cp -a やtarを使う。
    • 2005-08-17 True Image 8.0でバックアップ、リストア(/のみ試した)とも成功した。 ただし、40GB HDDをsecondary masterやsecondary slaveに接続するとTrue Imageが起動できなかった(通常版、セーフ版の両方とも)。 primary slaveに接続すれば起動できた。
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aptの準備 #

  • Sarge用のsources.listを作成しておく。(手持ちのSarge機から持ってくる)
  • パッケージをダウンロードしておく。
    • sources.listを入れ替えた後、apt-get update と apt-get -d dist-upgradeする。15分ほどかかった。
# apt-get update
Get:1 http://non-us.debian.org sarge/non-US/main Packages [20B]
Get:2 http://non-us.debian.org sarge/non-US/main Release [102B]
 :
Fetched 4868kB in 40s (119kB/s)
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done

# apt-get -d dist-upgrade
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
Calculating Upgrade... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
(略)
347 packages upgraded, 110 newly installed, 159 to remove and 13  not upgraded.
Need to get 209MB of archives. After unpacking 58.3MB will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n]
 :
Fetched 209MB in 15m46s (221kB/s)
Download complete and in download only mode
  • REMOVEDにapacheが入ってしまっているので、dist-upgradeではなくて、個別にアップデートすることにした。
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変更点のリストアップ、対策 #

パッケージはかなり沢山ある。使用頻度の低いものは消しておいた方がよいかも。

# dpkg --get-selections | wc -l
    586

# apt-get -u -s dist-upgrade | tee upgrade-list
Reading Package Lists...
Building Dependency Tree...
 :
Conf setserial (2.17-40 Debian:3.1r0/stable)
Conf tcsh-kanji (6.13.00-1 Debian:3.1r0/stable)
Conf vacation (3.3.0 Debian:3.1r0/stable)

# wc -l upgrade-list
1183 upgrade-list
  • dpkg --get-selectionでパッケージ一覧を取得しておき、手元のVMware上に同じ環境を作って、 アップデートしてみるべき。
    • 今回はbind9, ssh, apache, php4, postfixが動けばよいし、時間に余裕があるのでその場でどうにか出来るだろうから、やらない。
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作業全体の方針 #

作業はすべてssh経由で行い、ログを採る。ログを見れば設定時の選択肢はある程度わかるし、 そうでなくても *.dpkg-distや*.dpkg-oldを探して、後で設定を直せばよいし。

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apt-get #

次の順で実施した。

  1. 使ってないパッケージをアンインストールする (apt-get --purge remove)
  2. apt-get installでkernelやinitを入れ、liloの設定を行い、再起動する
  3. 適宜、apt-get -u dist-upgradeでパッケージの一覧を見て、先にやった方がよそうなものを個別に apt-get -u installで入れる。ただし、ssh,apache,php,bind9,postfixとそれらの関連パッケージは 優先的に入れる。(失敗したら、後でやり直す)
  4. Debian configuration(debconf)の選択肢
    1. apache,php,bind9,postfix以外は原則、パッケージメンテナのお勧めの設定を入れて、後で修正する。
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設定ファイルの修正 #

debconfの問いかけで出来た設定ファイル(*.dpkg-old, *.dpkg-new, *.dpkg-dist)を見て、設定ファイルを修正する。

修正が必要(かもしれない)設定ファイルを検索する。

# find /etc -name '*.dpkg*'
(略)
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個別の設定メモ #

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kernel 2.4 #

Pentium Pro/II/III用の2.4系列のカーネルの最新版をインストールする。

# apt-get -u install kernel-image-2.4-686
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  coreutils cramfsprogs dash initrd-tools kernel-image-2.4.27-2-686 libacl1 libattr1 libc6 libc6-dev libdb1-compat
  linux-kernel-headers locales modutils zlib1g zlib1g-dev 
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  libnss-db 
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  coreutils dash kernel-image-2.4-686 kernel-image-2.4.27-2-686 libacl1 libattr1 libdb1-compat linux-kernel-headers 
The following packages will be upgraded
  cramfsprogs initrd-tools libc6 libc6-dev locales modutils zlib1g zlib1g-dev 
8 packages upgraded, 8 newly installed, 1 to remove and 483  not upgraded.
Need to get 12.3MB/28.7MB of archives. After unpacking 49.4MB will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
 : (略)

この時点でglibcやinitrd-toolsも最新版に更新される。インストール作業には影響ないので、続行。

  • この時点でbase-configなどの基本パッケージを入れ替えた方が良かったかも…。
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kernel 2.6 #

Pentium Pro/II/III用の 2.6系列のカーネルの最新版をインストールする。

# apt-get -u install kernel-image-2.6-686

Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  kernel-image-2.6.8-2-686 module-init-tools 
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  kernel-image-2.6-686 kernel-image-2.6.8-2-686 module-init-tools 
0 packages upgraded, 3 newly installed, 0 to remove and 483  not upgraded.
Need to get 15.6MB of archives. After unpacking 45.5MB will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
 : (略)
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lilo #

/etc/lilo.confを編集

lilo -t でテスト

# lilo -t
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
Added 2.4.18-1-686
Added 2.4.27-2-686 *
Added 2.6.8-2-686
The boot sector and the map file have *NOT* been altered.

liloを実行

# lilo
Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
Added 2.4.18-1-686
Added 2.4.27-2-686 *
Added 2.6.8-2-686

再起動

# shutdown -r now

Broadcast message from root (pts/0) (Wed Aug 17 15:11:22 2005):

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
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hdparm #

ハードディスクが遅いと作業が辛いので、先にインストールして設定しておく。

Linux/hdparm

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bind #

既存の設定を使ったので、個別に確認

バージョンを確認

# dpkg -s bind9 | grep -i version
Version: 1:9.2.4-1

/usr/share/doc/bind9/README.Debian.gzを眺めておく。

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/etc/bind/db.root #

ちょっと眺めてみて、入れ替えても問題なさそうだったので、 /etc/bind/db.root.dpkg-distを/etc/bind/db.rootにコピー。

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/etc/bind/named.conf #

ファイルを比較。コメントの修正、include "/etc/bind/named.conf.options", include "/etc/bind/named.conf.local"; の2行が追加されている。

# diff -u named.conf named.conf.dpkg-dist | grep '^+'
+++ named.conf.dpkg-dist        2004-09-24 00:25:41.000000000 +0900
+// Please read /usr/share/doc/bind9/README.Debian.gz for information on the
+// If you are just adding zones, please do that in /etc/bind/named.conf.local
+include "/etc/bind/named.conf.options";
+// zone "com" { type delegation-only; };
+// zone "net" { type delegation-only; };
+// From the release notes:
+//  Because many of our users are uncomfortable receiving undelegated answers
+//  from root or top level domains, other than a few for whom that behaviour
+//  has been trusted and expected for quite some length of time, we have now
+//  introduced the "root-delegations-only" feature which applies delegation-only
+//  logic to all top level domains, and to the root domain.  An exception list
+//  should be specified, including "MUSEUM" and "DE", and any other top level
+//  domains from whom undelegated responses are expected and trusted.
+// root-delegation-only exclude { "DE"; "MUSEUM"; };
+include "/etc/bind/named.conf.local";

編集。

  • options {..}を削除、include "/etc/bind/named.conf.options"; を追加。
  • named.conf.localは有効な設定がないので、そのまま。
  • 残りのエントリは従来のものを使う。
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rndc.key #

bind9が起動してるときに/usr/share/doc/bind9/README.Debian.gzを見ながら作成した。

# grep rndc *.conf

# ls -l rndc*
-rw-r-----    1 bind bind   77 Mar 15  2003 rndc.key

# rndc-confgen -r /dev/urandom -a

# ls -l rndc*
-rw-r-----    1 bind bind   77 Aug 20 00:20 rndc.key

すると再起動できなくなった。

# /etc/init.d/bind9 reload
rndc: connection to remote host closed
This may indicate that the remote server is using an older version of
the command protocol, this host is not authorized to connect,
or the key is invalid.

# /etc/init.d/bind9 stop
Stopping domain name service: namedrndc: connection to remote host closed
This may indicate that the remote server is using an older version of
the command protocol, this host is not authorized to connect,
or the key is invalid.

あわててバックアップからrndc.keyを元に戻して回避。 /var/log/daemon.logを見ると、ちゃんと再起動できたようだ。

Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23344]: starting BIND 9.2.4 -u bind
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23344]: using 1 CPU
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: loading configuration from '/etc/bind/named.conf'
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: no IPv6 interfaces found
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: listening on IPv4 interface lo, 127.0.0.1#53
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: listening on IPv4 interface eth0, 192.168.1.2#53
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: command channel listening on 127.0.0.1#953
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: zone 0.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 1
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: zone 127.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 1
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: zone 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 2003091901
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: zone 255.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 1
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: zone private.discypus.jp/IN: loaded serial 2004071101
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: zone localhost/IN: loaded serial 1
Aug 20 00:29:33 koca named[23346]: running
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/etc/default/bind9 #

なにも設定されていなかったので、とりあえず放置。

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動作確認 #

手元のPCのdigで動作を確認。

$ dig @discypus.jp discypus.jp

; <<>> DiG 9.2.4 <<>> @discypus.jp discypus.jp
;; global options:  printcmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 32719
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 2

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;discypus.jp.                   IN      A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
discypus.jp.            86400   IN      A       210.225.196.35

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
discypus.jp.            86400   IN      NS      lanza.discypus.jp.
discypus.jp.            86400   IN      NS      ns2.discypus.jp.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns2.discypus.jp.        86400   IN      A       210.225.196.11
lanza.discypus.jp.      86400   IN      A       210.225.196.35

;; Query time: 47 msec
;; SERVER: 210.225.196.35#53(discypus.jp)
;; WHEN: Sat Aug 20 00:41:06 2005
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 115
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ssh #

sshをアップデート

# apt-get install ssh
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  libpam-runtime 
2 packages upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 403  not upgraded.
(略)

「設定を上書き」を選択、元のファイル(/etc/ssh/sshd_config.dpkg-old)と内容を比較、 外部からsshで繋げることを確認。とりあえず上書きされた/etc/sshd_configをそのまま使うことにした。

# diff -u /etc/ssh/sshd_config.dpkg-old /etc/ssh/sshd_config
--- /etc/ssh/sshd_config.dpkg-old       2004-01-01 10:12:28.000000000 +0900
+++ /etc/ssh/sshd_config        2005-08-17 16:03:44.000000000 +0900
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@
 LogLevel INFO
 #obsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging

-RhostsAuthentication no
+#RhostsAuthentication no
 #
 # For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts
 RhostsRSAAuthentication no
@@ -72,3 +72,5 @@
 #ReverseMappingCheck yes

 Subsystem      sftp    /usr/lib/sftp-server
+
+UsePAM yes
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Apache, PHP #

  • DebianのApacheの設定が結構変化していてPHPを動かすのに手間取った。 前から聞いてはいたのだが。
  • /etc/apache/suggested_corrections が出来てた。MIMEMagicFileの設定が違うらしいので修正。
    apache /etc/apache/httpd.conf config file declares a non standard:
    MIMEMagicFile share/magic
    and it should be changed to:
    MIMEMagicFile /usr/share/misc/file/magic.mime
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Postfix #

  • 設定が少々違うので再度調べ直すべきか。
  • regexp_table, pcre_ableはパッケージ付属のものに置き換えた。

パッケージインストール中の質問:

Postfix Configuration
Postfix has switched to db4, and this may require maps to be upgraded.
Do you want to automatically attempt the conversion?
Should Postfix upgrade hash and btree maps?
<Yes> <No>
Postfix version 2.1 and later require new services in master.cf.
Should this configuration be automatically added to master.cf?  Decline this option to 
abort the upgrade, giving you the opportunity to add this configuration yourself.
Accept this option to automatically make master.cf compatible with Postfix 2.1 in this 
respect.
Correct master.cf for upgrade? 
<Yes> <No>
Postfix version 2.0.2 and later require changes in dynamicmaps.cf. Specifically, 
wildcard support is gone, and with it, %s expansion.  Any changes that you made to 
dynamicmaps.cf that relied on these features will need to be fixed by you.  Failure to 
correct these will result in a broken mailer.

Should dynamicmaps.cf be automatically changed?  Decline this option to abort the 
upgrade, giving you the opportunity to eliminate wildcard and %s-expansion-dependent 
configuration.  Accept this option if you have no such configuration, and automatically 
make dynamicmaps.cf compatible with Postfix 2.0.2 in this respect.

Correct dynamicmaps.cf for upgrade?
<Yes> <No>
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main.cf #

smtpd_recipient_restrictionsの'check_relay_domains'を'reject_unauth_destination'に置き換え。

チェック

# /etc/init.d/postfix check
# postconf -n
: (略。変更点が反映されてることを確認)
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Proftpd #

proftpd は 1.2.10-15。

設定ファイルをテスト。

# /usr/sbin/proftpd --configtest
Checking syntax of configuration file
 - Fatal: LsDefaultOptions: deprecated. Use ListOptions instead on line 21 of '/etc/proftpd.conf'

LsDefaultOptionsは古いので、ListOptionsを使え、とのこと。

修正して、再度チェック。OK。

# /usr/sbin/proftpd --configtest
Checking syntax of configuration file
Syntax check complete.
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ftpクライアントのためのメモ #

ffftp Ver 1.92aなら、ホスト一覧→高度で

  • 「LISTコマンドでファイル一覧を取得」にチェックを付ける

関連情報

  • ProFTPD NLSTパッチ
    • proftpdにパッチを当てて、従来と同じ動作にしてしまう。 discypus.jpサーバはユーザが少ないから、いまんところやらないけど。
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sysstat #

# apt-get install sysstat
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
1 packages upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 405  not upgraded.
(略)

debconfの質問に答えて、作業完了。

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issue, issue.net #

デフォルトのは使わないので、issue.dpkg-dist, issue.net.dpkg-dist を消去して完了。

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smartmontools #

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インストール #

# apt-get install smartmontools
(略)
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動作確認 #

PC/Accusys ACS-75130

# smartctl /dev/hda
smartctl version 5.32 Copyright (C) 2002-4 Bruce Allen
Home page is http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

Warning! Drive Identity Structure error: invalid SMART checksum.
SMART support is: Unavailable - device lacks SMART capability.
A mandatory SMART command failed: exiting. To continue, add one or more '-T permis
sive' options.
  • このRAID1はS.M.A.R.T.をサポートしていない(のは事前に知ってたけど…)

WDC WD400AB-32BVA0

# smartctl /dev/hdb
smartctl version 5.32 Copyright (C) 2002-4 Bruce Allen
Home page is http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

SMART Disabled. Use option -s with argument 'on' to enable it.
# smartctl -s on /dev/hdb
smartctl version 5.32 Copyright (C) 2002-4 Bruce Allen
Home page is http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

=== START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===
SMART Enabled.
# smartctl -a /dev/hdb
smartctl version 5.32 Copyright (C) 2002-4 Bruce Allen
Home page is http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     WDC WD400AB-32BVA0
Serial Number:    WD-WMA7F1017041
Firmware Version: 21.01H21
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   5
ATA Standard is:  Exact ATA specification draft version not indicated
Local Time is:    Fri Aug 19 20:11:53 2005 JST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82) Offline data collection activity
                                        was completed without error.
                                        Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0) The previous self-test routine completed
                                        without error or no self-test has ever
                                        been run.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:                 (2376) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:                    (0x3b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                                        Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                                        Suspend Offline collection upon new
                                        command.
                                        Offline surface scan supported.
                                        Self-test supported.
                                        Conveyance Self-test supported.
                                        No Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                                        power-saving mode.
                                        Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                                        No General Purpose Logging support.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (  42) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   5) minutes.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000b   200   200   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0007   105   101   021    Pre-fail  Always       -       3841
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   099   099   040    Old_age   Always       -       1063
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0032   194   194   112    Old_age   Always       -       23
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000b   200   200   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   069   069   000    Old_age   Always       -       22954
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0013   100   100   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   099   099   000    Old_age   Always       -       1039
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   178   178   000    Old_age   Always       -       22
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0012   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x000a   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x0009   200   200   051    Pre-fail  Offline      -       0

SMART Error Log Version: 1
ATA Error Count: 3
        CR = Command Register [HEX]
        FR = Features Register [HEX]
        SC = Sector Count Register [HEX]
        SN = Sector Number Register [HEX]
        CL = Cylinder Low Register [HEX]
        CH = Cylinder High Register [HEX]
        DH = Device/Head Register [HEX]
        DC = Device Command Register [HEX]
        ER = Error register [HEX]
        ST = Status register [HEX]
Powered_Up_Time is measured from power on, and printed as
DDd+hh:mm:SS.sss where DD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes,
SS=sec, and sss=millisec. It "wraps" after 49.710 days.

Error 3 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 851 hours (35 days + 11 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  00 50 08 bd a0 f9 e1   at LBA = 0x01f9a0bd = 33136829

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  30 00 80 0d a7 40 e0 00      00:06:52.550  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 91 5f 05 e0 00      00:06:36.450  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 01 5f 05 e0 00      00:06:20.350  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 bd a0 f9 e1 00      00:06:04.300  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 6d 7d 65 e0 00      00:05:48.200  WRITE SECTOR(S)

Error 2 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 895 hours (37 days + 7 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was doing SMART Offline or Self-test.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  00 50 08 94 a1 2d a0   at LBA = 0x002da194 = 2990484

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  ca 00 08 ed 7a 30 e0 00      00:07:42.750  WRITE DMA
  ca 00 08 ed 7a 30 e0 00      00:07:42.750  WRITE DMA
  ca 00 01 ad 2b 41 e2 00      00:07:37.600  WRITE DMA
  ca 00 02 8d 2b 41 e2 00      00:07:36.600  WRITE DMA
  ca 00 24 6d 84 55 e2 00      00:07:35.600  WRITE DMA

Error 1 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 642 hours (26 days + 18 hours)
  When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was doing SMART Offline or Self-test.

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER ST SC SN CL CH DH
  -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  00 50 08 8e a1 2d e0   at LBA = 0x002da18e = 2990478

  Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  30 00 08 15 29 07 e0 00      00:22:35.000  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 15 29 07 e0 00      00:22:35.000  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 15 29 07 e0 00      00:22:31.950  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 0d fc 6f e3 00      00:22:16.450  WRITE SECTOR(S)
  30 00 08 0d fc 6f e3 00      00:22:01.400  WRITE SECTOR(S)

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]


Device does not support Selective Self Tests/Logging

#
[編集]

設定 #

/etc/smartd.confを編集

/etc/default/smartmontools

# /etc/init.d/smartmontools 
Usage: /etc/init.d/smartmontools {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload}

# /etc/init.d/smartmontools restart
Not starting S.M.A.R.T. daemon smartd, disabled via /etc/default/smartmontools
# /etc/init.d/smartmontools restart
Restarting S.M.A.R.T. daemon: smartd.
# man smartctl
[編集]

qpopper (apop) #

2005-09-18

久しぶりにアカウント(仮にnewuserとする)を追加して、さらにAPOPを設定しようとしたらエラー。

# popauth -user newuser
POP authentication DB not initialized (exists): /etc/pop.auth

試しに /etc/pop.authをバックアップしてから、popauth -initすると、所有者が変更された。
(注:この作業はdiscypus.jpサーバではなく、手元のテスト環境で実施した)

# cp /etc/pop.auth /etc/pop.auth.old
# popauth -init
Really initialize POP authentication DB? y

# ls -l /etc/pop.auth*
-rw-------  1 mail mail 1536 Sep 18 22:59 /etc/pop.auth     ★所有者がmailになってる
-rw-------  1 root root 1586 Sep 18 22:59 /etc/pop.auth.old

ということで、所有者をmailに変更し、mailの権限で実行したらOK。

# chown mail:mail /etc/pop.auth
# su mail
$ popauth -list ALL
(略)

$ popauth -user newuser
Adding only APOP password for newuser
New password:
Retype new password: